We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Of course, if you buy only a few boards, then it will not be difficult to inspect and identify defective ones among them. But when you need a lot - a large bag or a stack? Then problems will arise. True, mostly of a psychological nature. After all, the buyer, meticulously examining each board, undoubtedly looks like a bore in the eyes of both sellers and others. I believe that it is better to be known as a bore than to get a notorious marriage for your hard-earned money. However, I do not impose my opinion on anyone.
Defects in lumber
Now directly about the flaws of the boards. The most common and inevitable defect of wood, and therefore of boards, is knots. Knots not only worsen the appearance of the boards, but also violate the uniformity of the structure, and often the integrity of the wood. They cause curvature of the fibers, annual layers, thereby making it difficult to process.
Knots, especially edge knots (Figure 9), oblong (Figure 10), stitched (Figure 11) and group knots (Figure 12), reduce the strength of the boards when stretched along the grain and in bending.
The so-called "tobacco" knots are also very dangerous. These are rotten or rotten knots, in which the rotted wood is completely or partially replaced by a loose mass of rusty-brown or whitish color.
Another common board defect is the already mentioned cracks. It is clearer than clear: if logs with cracks are sawn, then they will certainly be in the boards. There are four main types of cracks in the boards: metic (Figure 13), frosty (Figure 14), shrinkage cracks (Figure 15) and shallow (Figure 16). All types of cracks in the logs, and even more in the boards, violate the integrity and reduce the strength, therefore, significantly shorten their service life. Watch out for cracks!
Another defect of the boards is warping. Warping is a change in the shape of the cross-section of the board when it dries or moistens. Along the length of the board, they can bend, acquiring an arched shape. This is longitudinal warpage (Figure 17).
But sometimes the board takes on a helical shape (Figure 18). This is wingedness. In common parlance, such boards are aptly called "propeller".
And, perhaps, the last flaw of the boards is the curl (Figure 19). This is a local curvature of the annual layers due to the influence of knots or germination (germination is a dead part of the wood and bark due to damage to the surface of the trunk). The curl occurs in the form of partially cut brace-shaped curved concentric contours formed by curved annual layers.
There are two types of curls: one-sided and through. Curl (especially through) reduces the strength of the wood in compression and tension along the grain and when bending.
All of the above defects are inherent in the timber.
This is probably all in a nutshell about what to avoid when buying lumber. No, I in no way urge you to use all the advice in a row in practice. However, when buying logs, beams or boards for a specific purpose, remember what flaws can prevent you from using them for their intended purpose. Pay special attention to them.
Alexander Nosov, shabashnik with many years of experience
Floor standing or with installation?
Toilet bowls can have a different way of connecting the drain. In total, three configurations are distinguished, in which the discharge neck is directed horizontally, obliquely or vertically, in the latter case, the discharge of drains "to the floor" is meant.
In everyday life, inclined drain pipes are most common. Since the crosspiece of the riser is usually located at or below floor level, it is easier to make the connection point less visible in this position. It is very good if the angle of inclination of the drain outlet is reliably known, in which case it will be easier to choose a set of connecting elbows for connection.
Horizontal bends are used less often, this feature is more typical for attached and hanging toilet bowls. It should be clarified that both of these options do not have visible connection points, while the suspended ones also do not come into contact with the floor at all, they are supported by an installation frame hidden in the wall.
The bottom bend is the most specific. The outdoor location of the sewer socket is not typical for domestic construction projects. However, if the developer is aware of this type of connection, he will be able to make changes to the configuration of the sewer system in time, thereby saving a little space in the bathroom. Typically, this opportunity is implemented in private one-story houses, as well as buildings with frame ceilings. Also, toilets with a bottom discharge will come in handy when arranging outdoor toilets, in plumbing stores you can even find options without a water seal.
How to fix foam with dowels?
You can start fixing the foam with dowels only after the glue has hardened. After gluing the sheets, you usually need to wait 24 hours. The number and location of dowels must be indicated by the architect who designed the thermal insulation system for the house. It is assumed that the minimum quantity should be 4 pieces per 1 m 2 of the facade (with a standard size of a polystyrene foam board 100 x 50 cm, two dowels per sheet)... Along the corners of the building, the number of dowels should be increased to 6 pcs / m2, taking into account that the extreme dowel should be at a distance of at least 10 cm from the edge of the facade.
Unless otherwise indicated by the architect, polystyrene can be fixed according to the above diagram.
How to choose a dry closet for a summer residence?
A toilet in the country is a necessary thing, I think no one will argue with this statement. Someone gets by with a simple version of a toilet with a cesspool (an option, as they say, time-tested), and someone who is allowed the opportunity to acquire dry closets for use in the country. Today we will talk about this kind of street toilets.
Red caviar - which fish has the best and tastiest
There is such a thing on the market as salmon caviar. But in theory, such a product does not exist in nature, there are breeds of salmon fish, of which there are only 13 species. These are chum salmon, pink salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, trout, chinook salmon, etc. These are the main types of salmon, the product of which can be found on the shelves in stores.
Which caviar is better and how do they differ from each other? In terms of chemical composition, they are all the same. Each of them contains a large amount of protein and fat. The calorie content of 100 g is 264 kcal. It is a source of large amounts of vitamins, especially B group, and trace elements. But the size of the eggs and their color are different for each fish.
- The largest are chum salmon and chinook salmon, their size sometimes reaches 7 mm.
- Slightly smaller in pink salmon, coho salmon - it can be 4-5 mm in diameter.
- It is the smallest in trout and sockeye salmon, only 2-3 mm in diameter.
They also differ in color. For example,
- pink salmon they are light orange,
- chum salmon - from pale red to light orange,
- coho salmon, chinook salmon and sockeye salmon are bright red.
Sockeye caviar can taste bitter. If you eat it at pink salmon, chum salmon or trout, and it tastes bitter, then this is already a fake.
The rarest, tastiest and most expensive is trout caviar. Most often we buy pink salmon, it is no less tasty, but more affordable. And it is most of all forged.
A high-quality product will have a core inside - the embryo of a future fish. This can be seen in the light. When buying, shake the jar; there should be no characteristic gurgling sound in it. Poor quality if there are a lot of jus in the jar - burst eggs. Normally, it should not be more than 5%. A good product in an open can, if turned over, should not fall out of it.
How to choose a sledgehammer Selection recommendations
No matter how technological the world becomes, a tool called a sledgehammer, invented many centuries ago, has not lost its relevance and is also often now used in plumbing and construction work.
To find out how to choose sledgehammers, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with all types of this tool and the subtleties on which the service life and its strength depend.
TYPES OF KUVALD
Distinctive features of the tool are the shape and weight of the head, as well as the material for the manufacture of the handle. All indicators correspond to GOST 11402-75 and GOST 11401-75.
Depending on the type of striker sledgehammers there are:
with a longitudinal pointed striker (3-8 kg)
with transverse striker (3-8 kg)
For the manufacture of strikers, the ebb method is not used; they are produced only by the forging method. For this, durable unalloyed steel is used, allowing the tool to serve for many years. The hole for attaching the handle is made in a special way. To keep the firing pin tight, two tapered holes are made in its center, tapering towards the center. Such a maneuverable attachment allows the multi-kilogram head to be held on the handle.
Sledgehammer handle made, as a rule, of wood - it allows you to soften the impact of impact. For the same reason, handles made of metal and plastic are made less often - the metal gives off strong vibration, and the plastic simply cannot withstand the loads. Modern sledgehammers are increasingly being produced with a fiberglass handle, a high-tech resin-based plastic. It has increased strength and, when covered with rubber, softens the recoil no worse than wood.
There are many factors to consider when choosing a sledgehammer with a quality handle:
the length of the sledgehammer handle cannot be shorter than 80 cm
when choosing a wooden handle, the type of wood should be considered. Hard varieties are ideal: beech, birch, maple, mountain ash. It is worth abandoning the handle made of coniferous species, their service life is short, in the process of active work they stratify and break
the surface of the handle should be smooth, ideally with finely sanded sandpaper
the section of the handle should be round with a thickening (not less than 1.5 times) from the side of the attachment with the striker.
The areas where the sledgehammer is used are quite extensive. It is used for:
works in a tire workshop for tire upholstery and leveling work
breaking stone, brick and other materials, and buildings
carrying out blacksmith work
hammering hardware that an ordinary hammer cannot cope with: thick stakes, nails, staples and railway crutches.
WHAT TO PAY ATTENTION TO
When choosing a sledgehammer, special attention should be paid to the details that are responsible for the convenience and efficiency of future work with the tool:
sess. It can be different: from 1 to 25 kg, and you need to start from the work for which the sledgehammer will be designed. A small sledgehammer, slightly larger than a hammer, with a weight of about 2-3 kg will help to hammer thick stakes into the ground. For construction purposes and the dismantling of buildings, more powerful options with a weight of over 16 kg will be needed
striker material. You should pay attention to the grade of steel from which the head is made. Most often, 40 and 45 brands are used for these purposes. Sometimes - 50 or "U7"
moisture content of wood. If the handle of the sledgehammer is made of wood, you should pay attention to the moisture content of the material, it should not be higher than 12%, only in this case you should count on a long service life of the tool.
How much is good red caviar?
In addition to a natural product, stores often sell artificial caviar made from protein products (milk, eggs, gelatin) with the addition of flavors, dyes and flavorings. In order not to confuse artificial caviar with real caviar, you should carefully study the labels and analyze the price.
Real red caviar cannot cost less than 700 rubles per 1 kg. Although, even for a synthetic product, prices are greatly inflated in order to deceive consumers.
How to choose a walk-behind tractor correctly?
There is a choice of equipment from domestic and foreign manufacturers. Often, for gardening, many are considering buying a walk-behind tractor and cultivator. Let's consider their differences.
First, they are two completely different tools. The first is intended for cultivating the soil - the soil is softened, the roots of the weeds are destroyed. This is its function. The cultivators have electric and gasoline engines.
As for the walk-behind tractor, it is a versatile farmer's tool. Its functions can be changed depending on what devices will be installed in it. For example, you can put a plow, a tiller, a cultivator. If you install wheels and a trailer, the walk-behind tractor becomes a small tractor, on which it is convenient to transport goods.
Other equipment can be connected to the walk-behind tractor, for example, an electric generator, a water pump. Changing fixtures takes no more than 15 minutes. Thus, the walk-behind tractor is a versatile equipment capable of performing mechanical work in the garden and garden. Usually, wheels and a cultivator are included in the basic configuration of motoblocks. Other attachments can be purchased separately on the website sm-store.com.ua.
From all that has been said, it follows that a cultivator is cheaper than a walk-behind tractor, therefore if you only need to cultivate the land, then it is not necessary to buy a whole walk-behind tractor, which is nevertheless purchased more often due to its versatility. For example, they can be used in a greenhouse, where a mini tractor cannot cope.
Almost all motoblocks are supplied with a gasoline or diesel engine. Choosing such equipment, you can start from the area of the site:
- 20 acres - the power should be 3.5 hp. Moreover, the working width is 60 cm.
- 60 acres - requires 4 hp. and a working width of 80 cm.
- 1 hectare - you will need 5-6 hp, width 90 cm.
- 4 hectares - 9 hp and a width of 100 cm.
Advice! For a plot of more than 4 hectares, it is better to purchase a small tractor.
If you buy a walk-behind tractor with a power reserve, then you can get additional strength and reliability. Fuel consumption is low - from 0.9 liters per hour to 2.5. This means that a 10 liter canister will last from 8 to 22 hours.
Various parts of domestic production are almost as good as imported ones. In the store, you need to immediately ask what is included in the complete set of the walk-behind tractor. Chances are, you will need wheels and a cutter to cultivate. There should be a guarantee and service.